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The Country Programme Action Plan (CPAP) is designed to make a significant contribution to the country’s effort to complete the current process of widespread and systemic transformation.
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UNDP Country Programme Action Plan 2011 - 2015
Indonesia's achievements during the previous five years have been impressive. Its economy appears to have weathered the worst effects of the current global financial crisis, which is the second to have hit Indonesia in the last decade. The level of poverty as calculated by the poverty head count ratio or the percentage of the population living below the national poverty has also been reduced from a baseline level of 15.10 percent in 1990 to 14.15 percent in 2009 and further to 13.33 percent in 2010 (BPS, SUSENAS 2010). Between 2002 and 2008, Indonesia's Human Development Index (HDI) has risen by an average of 1.4 per cent per year. Based on UNDP's revised Human Development Index released in 2010, Indonesia is highlighted as one of the top global movers, ranking fourth in terms of countries that have made the fastest progress in human development. Indonesia is on track to achieve many of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015, including targets related to health and education, gender equality, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability. Indonesia has made remarkable progress in strengthening democratic institutions. The Government of Indonesia has successfully ended a decades-long conflict in Aceh Province
Despite progress on many fronts, critical development challenges remain. Indonesia's emergence as a lower middle-income country has been characterised by uneven growth. Approximately 32.5 million people out of a population of 230 million (equivalent to 14.15 percent) live below the national poverty line ($1.55 purchasing power parity (PPP)/person/day). However, in some regions - where vulnerability to external shocks, natural disasters and infectious diseases impede progress towards human development and the MDGs - the poverty rate is as high as 40 percent. Climate change poses an additional threat to the achievement of MDGs. Comprising more than 17,000 islands, Indonesia is especially vulnerable to rising sea levels and floods, while erratic weather patterns impact agricultural production, especially among small-scale farmers and fishermen. Indonesia is also a major emitter of greenhouse gases, largely caused by deforestation and the burning of peat lands. These practices contribute to global warming and threaten livelihoods, biodiversity, peace and stability. Political decentralization has brought decision-making closer to the people, but it has also exposed technical and administrative capacity gaps at local levels of government, especially in less developed regions.
The overall aim of this country programme is to ensure that development does not leave behind the vulnerable and disadvantaged through supporting national efforts for achieving the MDGs and sustainable human development. The country programme is anchored in Indonesia's new Medium-Term Development Plan for 2010-2014 and the UNPDF (2011-2015). Organized into three volumes, the Medium-Term Development Plan outlines Indonesia's overall development framework and identifies national priorities and focus regions. Guided by the Medium-Term Development Plan, the UNPDF emphasizes three themes: (a) equity in access to services, benefits, and opportunities for work; (b) participation in development processes; and (c) resilience to external shocks, disasters, conflict and climate change.
The country programme is organised into four programme components, each of which contributes directly to the Medium-term Development Plan and UNPDF outcome areas: (a) MDGs and Poverty Reduction; (b) Environment, Energy and Climate Change; (c) Democratic Governance; and (d) Crisis Prevention and Recovery. The Results and Resources Framework, attached to as Annex 1 in the CPAP, sets out the specific outcomes, outputs, indicators, and targets for each area of work in the CPAP.
MDGs and Poverty Reduction
The MDG and poverty reduction programme aims to help Indonesia in its final push toward achieving the MDGs that design to a) strengthen national and sub-national capacities to monitor, analyse and promote the MDGs and Human Development, and b) accelerate regional development and the achievement of the MDGs in disadvantage regions such as Papua, West Papua, West Nusa Tenggara, and East Nusa Tenggara. It will emphasize in developing the capacity of national and sub-national institutions and linking those strategies to budgetary processes and regulatory framework, including ensuring improved targeting of resources towards the poor and vulnerable. UNDP will also support Indonesia efforts to play stronger role in fostering regional and global partnership for development by leveraging its position with international institutions such as G20, ASEAN, the UN, and others, as well as its aspirations to be South-South centre of excellence.
Environment, Energy, and Climate Change
In response to the growing impact of climate change on human development and in reversing development gains, climate change adaptation and mitigation will be the central focus of UNDP. The programme is organized into three clusters: climate change adaptation and mitigation; renewable energy/energy efficiency; and sustainable natural resources management. UNDP will partner with government, private sector and community based organization to ensure that there are coherent and effective policy frameworks, action plan and funding mechanism in place to manage the climate change issues. And at the same time will also support the Government in ensuring adherence to international conventions ratified by Indonesia.
As public sector reform for good governance is priority number one in Indonesia Medium Term Development Plan 2010-2014, UNDP support will focus on strengthening: a) the integrity of political, bureaucratic and judicial institutions; b) the accountability and representative of political parties; c) public engagement in transparent and inclusive policymaking; d) legal empowerment to protect rights and control abuses of power, and e) public services standards and bureaucratic reform. With participation as its unifying theme, the programme organized in three sub-clusters: a) civic engagement and democratic representation; b) promoting access to justice and right based legal and justice sector reform; and c) strengthened capacity of local government to deliver basic services.
Crisis Prevention and Recovery
The crisis prevention and recovery programme will support the Government in the areas of a) conflict prevention; b) disaster risk reduction, and c) post crisis recovery. The programme seeks to build on the successes of the past five years and institutionalize lessons at the national and local levels in each focus area. A key challenge will be to support the transition from crisis response to building national and local capacity to coordinate and manage recovery process. UNDP will support national and local government to institutionalize recovery tools and mechanisms that have been developed and apply global best practices and principles of 'do no harm', 'build back better', gender, environment sustainability and good governance.
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